盆地深层火山岩位场分离与边界识别方法概述
投稿时间:2023-12-06  修订日期:2024-01-12  点此下载全文
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作者单位邮编
周耀明* 湖南工学院 421001
邵行来 新疆自治区国家305项目办公室 
王建强 桂林理工大学广西隐伏金属矿产勘查重点实验室 
朱广 湖南工学院 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(编号:2017YFC0601204-04)资助
中文摘要:当今盆地深层火山岩已成为油气勘探的热点领域,通过位场分离和边界检测获得火山岩的重磁异常和分布情况,是火山岩油气勘探的首要环节。本文首先基于各种位场分离方法的分离能力,将它们归于二分法和多分法2类,并对能够胜任盆地深部火山岩重磁异常提取的多分位场方法的起源、发展和现状进行了阐述。分析认为匹配滤波受垂向上不同场源可能的频谱重叠影响,位场分离效果欠佳;小波分析通过小波多尺度分解和功率谱分析,可有效分离不同深度层次的位场并确定场源埋深;由于切割半径和异常体中心埋深具有等量关系,插值切割法可实现明确地质意义上的位场分层分离。因此,相较于匹配滤波,小波多尺度分析和插值切割法具有更好的位场分离效果。其次,对局部异常的边界检测方法进行了分类对比,认为直接导数计算类方法可有效确定浅部场源边界,但对于深部场源边界反应不灵敏。导数比值计算类方法可以将深、浅部场源引起的异常归一到同一水准,实现深、浅部场源边界的准确识别,因此,导数比值计算类方法是盆地深部火山岩边界检测的优先选择。此外,讨论了导数比值计算类方法的解析奇点和导数计算时引入的噪声对边界识别精度的影响及解决方案。
中文关键词:盆地深层火山岩  重磁异常  插值切割法  小波多尺度分解  斜导数
 
A review of potential field separation and boundary identification methods of basin deep volcanic rocks
Abstract:Nowadays, the basin deep volcanic rocks have become a hot field of oil and gas exploration, it is crucial for volcanic oil and gas exploration to obtain the gravity and magnetic anomalies caused by volcanic rocks and their distribution by potential field separation and boundary identification . In this paper, all kinds of potential field separation methods are firstly classified into two categories according to their separation ability, i.e. dichotomous and multi-division method, and the origin, development and current situation of multi-division potential field methods which are capable of extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies of basin deep volcanic rocks are discussed in detail. As the result, the matched filtering method doesn’t have the desirable effect of potential separation because of the probable spectral overlap among different field sources in vertical direction. Wavelet analysis mothed can effective separate the potential field of the field sources with different buried depth and determine their buried depth by wavelet multi-scale decomposition and power spectrum analysis. Because of the equivalent relation between the cutting radius and the central depth of the abnormal body, the interpolation cutting method can realize the stratified separation of potential field with specific geological significance. Therefore, the wavelet multi-scale analysis and the interpolation cutting methods are more effective in the potential field separation comparing with the matched filtering. Secondly, the boundary detection methods of local anomalies are classified and compared. It is considered that the direct derivative calculation methods can effectively determine the boundary of shallow field sources, but it is not sensitive to that of the deep field source. While the derivative ratio calculation methods can normalize the anomalies caused by the deep and shallow field sources to the same level, so as to realize the accurate boundary identification both of the deep and shallow field sources. Therefore, derivative ratio calculation methods are the preferred choice for basin deep volcanic rock boundary detection. In addition, the influences of the analytic singularity of derivative ratio calculation methods and the noises introduced in derivative calculation on the accuracy of boundary recognition and the solutions are discussed.
keywords:Basin deep volcanic rocks  Gravity and magnetic anomalies  Interpolation cutting method  Wavelet multi-scale decomposition  Tilt derivative
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