穿透性地球化学在干旱戈壁荒漠覆盖区的应用——甘肃花牛山铅锌矿试验实例
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引用本文:刘汉粮,张必敏,王学求,孙彬彬,张振海,刘东盛.2021.穿透性地球化学在干旱戈壁荒漠覆盖区的应用——甘肃花牛山铅锌矿试验实例[J].地球学报,42(4):545-554.
DOI:10.3975/cagsb.2020.072601
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作者单位E-mail
刘汉粮 自然资源部地球化学探测重点实验室, 中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所
联合国教科文组织全球尺度地球化学国际研究中心 
liuhanliang@igge.cn 
张必敏 自然资源部地球化学探测重点实验室, 中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所
联合国教科文组织全球尺度地球化学国际研究中心 
zhangbimin@igge.c 
王学求 自然资源部地球化学探测重点实验室, 中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所
联合国教科文组织全球尺度地球化学国际研究中心 
 
孙彬彬 自然资源部地球化学探测重点实验室, 中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所
联合国教科文组织全球尺度地球化学国际研究中心 
 
张振海 自然资源部地球化学探测重点实验室, 中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所
联合国教科文组织全球尺度地球化学国际研究中心 
 
刘东盛 自然资源部地球化学探测重点实验室, 中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所
联合国教科文组织全球尺度地球化学国际研究中心 
 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(编号: 2016YFC0600600);国家自然科学基金项目(编号: 41903071);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(编号: 12120113100500; DD20190451; DD20190450)
中文摘要:干旱戈壁荒漠区地处我国西北部地区, 天山、北山、祁连山三大多金属成矿带横贯其中, 成矿条件优越, 找矿尤其是找隐伏矿的潜力巨大, 但受风成砂土的影响, 很难获知覆盖层下方的矿化信息。穿透性地球化学已被证实是有效寻找隐伏矿的方法, 其被定义为能探测深部隐伏矿体发出的直接信息的勘查地球化学理论与方法技术。笔者在花牛山铅锌矿开展土壤微细粒全量测量、金属活动态测量(水溶态测量、黏土吸附态测量、铁锰氧化物态测量)和地电化学测量多种穿透性地球化学勘查方法实测工作, 结果表明, 5种测量方法分析数据主成矿元素(铅、锌)异常衬度高, 变异系数大, 富集成矿可能性大, 地球化学异常与深部隐伏矿体位置吻合, 相比较而言, 土壤微细粒全量测量效果最好, 黏土吸附态测量、铁锰氧化物态测量和地电化学测量效果较好, 水溶态测量效果稍差; 所选方法技术针对干旱戈壁荒漠区寻找隐伏铅锌矿是有效的。气固介质中内生条件下的纳米金属微粒的发现为利用土壤作为采样介质的穿透性地球化学方法技术(土壤微细粒测量、金属活动态测量)提供了理论基础。电提取泡塑载体中大量的微米级的黏土矿物颗粒发现, 以及微量元素异常与铁、铝等常量元素异常高度一致, 初步推断地电化学测量提取过程是对黏土矿物颗粒选择性吸附过程。
中文关键词:穿透性地球化学  土壤微细粒全量测量  金属活动态测量  地电化学测量  花牛山铅锌矿
 
The Application of Deep-penetrating Geochemistry in the Arid Gobi Desert Terrain: A Case Study in the Huaniushan Pb-Zn Deposit, Gansu Province
Abstract:The arid Gobi desert terrain is located in the northwest of China, where the three polymetallic metallogenic belts of Tianshan, Beishan and Qilian mountains pass through. The ore-forming conditions of this region are superior, and the potential for prospecting, especially in search for concealed mines, is enormous. However, it is difficult to obtain the mineralization information under the overburden due to the influence of aeolian sand. Deep-penetrating geochemical exploration methods were developed to solve the problems of how to get the information of the buried deposits in the covered layer, and the methods were successfully used to indicate some buried deposits, but not all kinds of deposits. Deep-penetrating geochemical exploration included fine particle total measurement, the selective leaching of mobile metals (MOMEO, measurement of ions derived from water soluble salts, measurement of ions and ultrafine particles adsorbed on clay minerals and measurement of ions and ultrafine particles occluded in Fe-Mn oxides), and geoelectric chemistry (CHIM) was carried out in the Huaniushan Pb-Zn deposit in the arid Gobi desert terrain. The results show that abnormal contrast of the data measured by these deep-penetrating geochemical methods is high, and the coefficient of variation is large. In addition geochemical anomalies delineated by these methods are located over the known orebodies and can be used to locate reliable prospecting targets. In comparison, the result of the fine particle total measurement is the best, the results of measurement of ions and ultrafine particles adsorbed on clay minerals, measurement of ions and ultrafine particles occluded in Fe-Mn oxides and geoelectric chemistry are better, and the result of measurement of ions derived from water soluble salts is relatively worse. So the selected methods are effective for finding concealed Pb-Zn deposits in the arid Gobi desert area. The findings of metallic nanoparticles under endogenous conditions in gas-solid media provide direct observation evidence for deep-penetrating geochemical methods using soil as sampling media (fine particle total measurement, MOMEO) in search for deeply concealed ore deposits. And the findings of a large number of micron-sized clay mineral particles in the geoelectric foam plastic carrier and the high consistency between major (Fe and Al) and trace elements’ anomalies infer that the anomaly of CHIM is caused by fine-grained clay mineral particles that exist in soil, and these particles can be adsorbed selectively by CHIM process.
keywords:deep-penetrating geochemistry  fine particle total measurement  MOMEO  CHIM  Huaniushan Pb-Zn deposit
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