华北平原区域水资源特征与作物布局结构适应性研究
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引用本文:张光辉,刘中培,费宇红,连英立,严明疆,王金哲.2010.华北平原区域水资源特征与作物布局结构适应性研究[J].地球学报,31(1):17-22.
DOI:10.3975/cagsb.2010.01.03
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作者单位E-mail
张光辉 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所 huanjing@heinfo.net 
刘中培 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所  
费宇红 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所  
连英立 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所  
严明疆 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所  
王金哲 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所  
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2007BAD69B02)、(2009BADA3B05)和河北省科技厅重点基础研究项目(08966711D)
中文摘要:据野外调查、遥感和综合研究表明, 近50年来华北平原粮食产量持续增加导致农业区地下水开采量不断增大, 同时灌溉节水水平的不断提高有效地缓解了农业开采量增加的速率。在1977年之前, 每增产10000t小麦和玉米, 多年平均实际开采量增加0.14?108 m3; 在1978年以来, 每增产10000t小麦和玉米, 多年平均实际开采量增加0.04?108 m3。以2001~2005年平均耗用地下水的开采强度(0.53 m3/kg)计算, 粮食增产促使地下水开采量平均每五年递增2.45×108 m3/a, 实际平均每五年少增加9.45×108 m3/a。降水量减小, 补给量变少, 开采量增大; 降水量增大, 补给量较多, 开采量减小。在连续枯(丰)水年份, 当年降水量减少(增加)10%时, 地下水系统水量减少7.98% (增加7.67%)。因此, 需要大力发展抗旱节水作物及高产节水技术, 合理调控农业种植结构, 对于缓解研究区地下水不断恶化态势具有实质性促进作用。
中文关键词:华北平原  地下水超采  灌溉耗水  互动机制  涵养与调整
 
The Relationship between the Distribution of IrrigatedCrops and the Supply Capability of Regional WaterResources in North China Plain
Abstract:Integrated field survey shows that the total yield of foodstuff has been increased continuously in the past fifty years in North China plain, which has caused the increasing exploitation of groundwater; on the other hand, the saving level of the irrigation water in the farmland has also been continuously improved so as to alleviate the rate of increasing groundwater exploitation. The increase of every 10000t of wheat and corn yield had caused the increase of 14?106 m3 groundwater exploitation before 1977, but has resulted in the increase of 4?106 m3 groundwater exploitation since 1978. The exploitation averagely increased 2.45?108 m3/a every five years due to foodstuff increase according to the average intensity of exploiting groundwater (0.53 m3/kg) for irrigating farm-land from 2001 to 2005; in contrast, the exploitation averagely increased 9.45?108 m3/a every five years according to the average intensity of exploiting groundwater (3.11 m3/kg) from 1953 to 1970. The influence of the precipita-tion variation on regional groundwater is of an interactive mechanism. If the annual precipitation decreases or in-creases 10%, the water quantity of the regional groundwater system correspondingly decreases 7.98 % or increases 7.67%, and the groundwater level falls or rises correspondingly. Therefore, the important measure for relaxing the status of excessive exploitation of groundwater in the North China plain lies in the energetic development of drought-enduring, and water-saving crops and the regulation of agricultural planting structure in a reasonable way.
keywords:North China plain  groundwater overexploitation  water consumption for irrigation  interactive mechanism  conservation and controlling measures
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